Multiplexing standardization for vehicles has been orchestrated by the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) internationally and by the SAE (Society of Automotive Engineers) in North America. In North America, SAE J standards, J1850 (light-duty vehicles) and J1939 (heavy-duty, on and off-highway vehicles), define the hardware and software protocols of multiplexed components and data transfer. The international ISO 9141 CAN 2.0 is consistent with J1850 and J1939 standards used in the United States and Canada. The SAE J1939 combines the older J1587/1708 hardware and software protocols so that current trucks tend to be both J1939 and J1587/1708 compatible. Hardware and software engineered in compliance with J1939 means that they can connect into the vehicle data bus without the translator/transducer modules that were required in some of the older J1587/1708 systems.